Chapter 3

NCERT
Class 9
History
Solutions
2. Discuss why Nazism became popular in Germany by 1930.

Question:

Discuss why Nazism became popular in Germany by 1930.

Answer:

Hitler introduced Nazism in Germany to establish his dictatorship. Nazism was a political system that propagated extreme hatred against the Jews. The main reasons for popularity of Nazism are as follows:

  • The Treaty of Versailles: After the defeat of Germany in the First World War, Germany had to sign the Treaty of Versailles. This treaty was very harsh and humiliating for Germans. Germans saw Hitler as a revolutionary who would restore the lost prestige of Germany.
  • Personality of Hitler: Hitler was a powerful orator. His words moved people. He promised to all the German people to build a strong nation, restore the dignity of the German people and undo all the injustice done by the Versailles Treaty. He joined a small group called the German Workers Party in 1919. He eventually took over the party and renamed it the National Socialists German Workers’ Party. Later, this party came to be known as Nazi Party. He promised to give employment to all the unemployed people looking for work and secure their future. He promised to eliminate all foreign influences and resist foreign conspiracies against Germany. The supporters of Hitler projected him as a messiah, a savior. This image captured the imagination of those people who lost their sense of dignity and pride, and who were living in an economic and political crisis.
  • Economic Crisis: The economic support of the USA to Germany was withdrawn when the US share market crashed in 1929. From 1929 to 1932, the national income of the USA fell by half. Their factories shut down, exports decreased, farmers were in miserable conditions and speculators withdrew their money from the market. This recession in the US was felt by the whole world. The worst effects of this crisis were seen in the German economy. In 1932, their industrial production reduced to 40%. Workers lost their jobs or were paid less. The number of unemployed persons reached 6 million. When the currency lost its value, the middle-class people saw their savings decreasing. The businessman and self-employed persons suffered.
  • Political Instability: The Weimar Republic was fragile too politically. It had some inherent defects which resulted in political instability. One defect was proportional representation, another was Article 48, which gave the President to impose an emergency, suspend civil rights and rule by command. People lost confidence in the democratic parliamentary system, which seemed to offer no solutions.

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