Chapter 3

NCERT
Class 9
History
Solutions
1. See the next few pages and write briefly: (a) What does citizenship mean to you? Look at Chapters I and 3 and write 200 words on how the French Revolution and Nazism defined citizenship.

Question:

See the next few pages and write briefly:

(a) What does citizenship mean to you? Look at Chapters I and 3 and write 200 words on how the French Revolution and Nazism defined citizenship.

(b) What did the Nuremberg Laws mean to the ‘undesirables’ in Nazi Germany? What other legal measures were taken against them to make them feel unwanted?

Answer:

(a) Ctizenship refers to the right to live freely in the country where I was born, or I want to live. Both the French Revolution and Nazism defined citizenship in different manners.

French Revolution: The French Revolution defined citizenship as men and women having equal rights, as they are born equal. The citizen rights include liberty, security, right to own property, freedom of expression, etc. They believed in the law, and no one is above the law.

Nazism: Nazism defined citizenship with a viewpoint of racial discrimination against all except the ‘pure Aryan’ Nordic race. According to Nazis, Jews and other ‘undesirable’ people should be eliminated from society. They should not be considered citizens of Germany. To eliminate them, the Nazis gave them very harsh treatment. They captured them in gas chambers or were publicly persecuted.

(b) According to the Nuremberg Laws, those who were considered as ‘undesirable’ had no right to live like a citizen of Germany. The ‘undesirables’ included Jews, Gypsies, Blacks, and other nationalists like Polish and Russian.

The following laws were promulgated in 1935:

  • Only Germans or related blood would be able to enjoy the protection of the German empire.
  • Germans were not allowed to marry ‘undesirables’. Extramarital affairs between them were also forbidden.
  • Boycott of Jewish business.
  • Jews were expelled from government services.
  • Forcibly seizing and selling the properties of Jews.

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