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After Class 10, for students who choose science irrespective of medical or non-medical field, Class 12 Physics is an integral part and somehow becomes a difficult subject to understand. Slowly students, after seeing complex numerical problems, need more understanding and many even start failing the subject.

To understand the concepts, Class 12 Physics Formulas play a significant role not only in the CBSE 2024 board exams but in the further competitive exams as well. The formulas can help students solve the problem directly and in a structured manner. This will also help in clearing the fundamentals of the chapters.

At Educart, the Class 12 Physics formulas list is provided based on NCERT and the latest CBSE pattern to help students find the formula list in one place and be able to score their dream marks.

- Faraday constant F = 96485 C/mol
- Bohr magneton µ
_{B}= 9.27 × 10^{−24}J/T - Planck constant h = 6.63 × 10
^{−34}J.s = 4.136 × 10^{-15}eV.s - Wien displacement constant b = 2.9 × 10
^{−3}m K - Rydberg constant R
_{∞}= 1.097 × 10^{7}m^{−1} - Molar gas constant R = 8.314 J/(mol K)
- Mass of proton m
_{p}= 1.6726 × 10^{−27}kg - Mass of electron m
_{e}= 9.1 × 10^{−31}kg - Coulomb constant 1/4πε
_{0}= 8.9875517923(14) × 10^{9}N m^{2}/C^{2} - Gravitation constant G = 6.67×10
^{−11}m^{3}kg^{−1}s^{−2} - Mass of neutron m
_{n}= 1.6749 × 10^{−27}kg - Permittivity of vacuum 0 = 8.85 × 10
^{−12}F/m - Charge of electron e = 1.602 × 10
^{−19}C

The Class 12 Physics formulas will help in exam preparation in fast calculations. The formula PDF has it all from simple formulas to the most difficult formulas. The section below has chapter-wise formula links and important topics.

Physics Chapter 1 Electric Charges and Fields covers all the important topics like Basic Introduction, Conservation of charge, superposition principle, electric field, Coulomb’s law, electric flux, Gauss Theorem, and its applications.

**Quantisation of Charge**

q = ± ne

Where n is the number of electrons transferred and e^{–} is the basic electron charge.

**Additive Property of Charges**

q_{net} = Σq_{i}

Where, i = 1, 2, 3. . . . n.

**Conservation of Charge/ Law of conservation of charge**

→ The total charge of an isolated system remains constant.

→ The electric charges can neither be created nor be destroyed, but can only be transferred from one body to another.

Here e_{0} is known as the permittivity constant of free space and has a value of 8.85 × 10^{–12} C^{2}N^{–1}m^{–2}. The S.I. unit of force is Newton (N).

1C is the charge which when placed 1 m away from another 1C charge exerts a force of 9 × 10^{9}N on each other.

As per Newton's third law,

Here, Q is known as the source charge, and q is known as the test charge. If the test charge is of 1 C then numerically the field is equal to the force of the source charge on the test charge. Hence, the force can be defined as

If multiple charges are around a certain point then the net electric field at a given point is the vector sum of all fields. It is given by,

The dipole moment of the dipole is given by, **p = q (2a)**

**For a large distance where r >> a**

**In terms of dipole moment, it translates into;**

**For a large distance where r >> a**

**In terms of dipole moment, it translates into;**

**Area charge density or surface charge density**

**Volume Charge Density**

ΦE stands for Electric flux

Unit of ΦE = unit of E × unit of S

∴ SI unit of Electric Flux = Nm^{2} C^{-1} or Vm^{-1} m^{2} = Vm

**Field due to infinitely long charged wire**

**Field due to an infinite plane lamina**

**Field due to a uniformly charged spherical shell**

**On the surface and outside the shell**

**Inside the shell**

** **

Physics Chapter 2 Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance covers all the important topics like Electric charges, electric potential due to a point charge, and capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates.

**Amount of Work Being Done in Moving The Test Charge**

ΔU = U_{P} – U_{R}

= W_{RP}

U = U_{P} – U_{∞}

Potential at any point P is given as

P = e_{0} _{ce}E

Below, ρ denotes the resistivity of the material.

⇒

⇒

j = σE

Where σ denotes conductivity which is the reverse of resistivity.

E = E_{1} + E_{2}

And r = r_{1} + r_{2 }

The net EMF is the sum of both EMFs and net resistance is the sum of internal resistances.

ΣI = 0

Σ (E-Ir) = 0

Physics Chapter 4 Moving Charges and Magnetism covers all the important topics like Oersted's experiment, biot-savart law, ampere’s law, moving coil galvanometer, and force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields.

Where, E = Electric field, B = Magnetic Field. This force is known as the Lorentz Force.

- The unit of the magnetic field is Tesla.
- 1 Gauss = 10
^{–4}Tesla

Where j = current density

Pitch = v_{y} T

Where, v_{y} = v_{||}

Which can also be written as

Where

The field at P due to the current element is given by,

This leads us to two cases

∫ B.dl = μ_{o}I

Then, Magnetic Field

Physics Chapter 5 Magnetism and Matter covers all the important topics like bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet), para-, dia-, and ferromagnetic substances, and the effect of temperature on magnetic properties.

**Magnetic moment m and electric dipole moment p.**

Imagine a small area vector dS such that the flux through it can be stated as

ΦB = ∫B . dS

Unlike electrostatics in magnetism, the flux is zero.

ΦB = 0

M = χH

B = μ0 (1 + χ ) H = μ0μr H = μH

Where μr = 1 + χ is known as **relative permeability**.

Physics Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Induction covers all the important topics like Faraday's law, induced EMF, and current, Lenz’s law, self, and mutual induction.

SI Unit of Magnetic flux

1 Wb = 1 Tm^{2}

Relation Between Weber and Maxwell

1 Wb = 1 Tm^{2} = 10^{4} × 10^{4} cm^{2}

1 Weber = 10^{8} maxwell

M_{21} = μ_{o}n_{1}n_{2}πr_{1}^{2} l

E = E_{o} sin2πνt

Where, ω = 2πv, E_{o} = NBAω

Instantaneous EMF of the source = Instantaneous potential difference across R.

I_{m} is known as current amplitude.

The sum of instantaneous current values over one complete cycle is zero and the average current is zero.

This circuit is purely inductive A.C. circuit.

It is the peak value of A.C.

ωL is known as Inductive Reactance, denoted by XL. SI unit is ohm (Ω).

X_{L} = ωL

The instantaneous power supplied to an inductor is,

So, the average power of the complete cycle is

The average power supplied to an inductor over one complete cycle is zero.

The voltage across the capacitor is given by,

Where the amplitude of oscillating current is, I_{m} = ωCV_{m}

The instantaneous power supplied to the capacitor is,

And the average power of the complete cycle is given by,

I = I_{m} sin (ωt + φ)

= VI cos φ

It can also be written as, P = I^{2} Z cos φ

- In a step-up transformer, N
_{p}> N_{s}, the turn ratio is greater than 1, hence output voltage is greater than the input voltage. - In a step-down transformer, N
_{s}> N_{p}, the turn ratio is less than 1, hence output voltage is less than input voltage. - Real transformers are 90-99% efficient. Small energy losses occur in real transformers due to flux leakage, resistance of the windings, eddy currents, or hysteresis.

Physics Chapter 8 Electromagnetic waves cover all the important topics like areas under simple curves.

Physics Chapter 9 Ray Optics and Optical covers all the important topics like total internal reflection, linear magnification, power of the lens, and refraction through a prism, microscope, and telescope.

Here, C is the center of curvature, and F is the Principal Focus of the mirror.

- When m > 1, an image formed is enlarged.
- When m < 1, an image formed is diminished.
- When m is positive, the image must be erect, i.e., virtual.
- When m is negative, the image must be inverted, i.e., real.

The refractive index μ of a material is the ratio of the speed of light (c) in vacuum to the speed of light in the medium (v).

Magnification by the lens is the ratio of the image to that of the object.

P = P_{1} + P_{2 }+ P_{3} +.........+ P_{n}

δ = i + e – A

Minimum deviation Dm,

Physics Chapter 10 Wave Optics covers all the important topics like Huygens principle, Interference of light, polarisation, and many more.

If c represents the speed of light, then

n_{1}sin i = n_{2} sin r

i_{c} = n_{2}/n_{1}

Resultant Intensity at a Point Is Maximum When

cos φ = 1 or φ = 0, 2 p, 4p

path difference is p = 0, λ, 2λ ….. = nλ

Path difference, p = S_{2}P – S_{1}P

Position of bright fringes, for consecutive interference

For central bright fringe n = 0,

For n^{th} bright fringe:

Position of dark fringe, for destructive interference

For the first dark fringe n = 1,

For n^{th} dark fringe

Width of a dark fringe = separation between two consecutive bright fringes

Intensity is proportional to the square of amplitude.

**Calculation of path difference**

P = BP – AP = d sin q

**Position of minima**

d sin θ_{1} = λ

**n**^{th}dark fringe

d sin q_{n }= nλ, n = 1, 2, 3…

**Position of the n**^{th}secondary maximum

Physics Chapter 11 Dual Nature of Radiation Matter covers all the important topics like electron emission and reflection, photoelectric effect, and many more.

1 eV = 1.602 × 10^{–19} J

K_{max} = eV_{o}

Physics Chapter 12 Atoms covers all the important topics like Bohr’s model and line spectra of the hydrogen atom, the trajectory of α particles, electron orbits, de-broglie’s explanation, and atomic spectra.

- the radius of the orbit and electron velocity

- The kinetic energy (K) and electrostatic potential energy (U) of the hydrogen atom

- Total Electron Energy

h_{ν }= E_{i} – E_{f}

Physics Chapter 13 Nuclei covers all the important topics like basic terms and concepts, nuclear binding energy, radioactivity, and radioactive decay.

- 1 amu =
^{1}/_{12}× Mass of the carbon 12-atom - 1 amu =
^{1}/_{12}× 1.992678 × 10^{–26 }kg - 1 amu = 1.660565 × 10
^{–27}kg - Z = No. of protons in an atom = No. of an electron in an atom = Atomic Number
- N = No. of neutrons in an atom = Neutron number
- A = No. of nucleons in an atom = Mass number = (Z + N) = Total no. of proton and neutron. where Z = Atomic No; A = Mass No; X = Chemical symbol of the element
- Symbolically Representation

**The volume of the nucleus is directly proportional to its mass number.**

**Density formula**

E = mc^{2}

ΔE_{b} = Δm × c^{2}

Δm = [Zm_{p} + (A – Z) m_{n}]^{–M}

Binding energy per nucleon is the average energy to extract a single nucleon from the nucleus.

Let, A = 240 breaks into A_{1} and A_{2} of 120

E_{bn} for A = 7.6 MeV

E_{bn} for A_{1} and A_{2} = 8.5 MeV

Physics Chapter 14 Semiconductor Electronics covers all the important topics like classification based on conductivity, intrinsic, and extrinsic metal, and many more.

**Metals:**High conductivity,

σ = 10^{2} to 10^{8} Sm^{–1}

**Semiconductors:**Intermediate conductivity,

σ = 10^{5} to 10^{–6} Sm^{–1}

**Insulators:**Low conductivity,

σ = 10^{–11} to 10^{–19 }Sm^{–1}

E_{g} = 1.17 eV for Si

E_{g} = 0.74 eV for Ge

- n
_{i }= n_{e}= n_{h}

Intrinsic carrier concentration = number of free electrons = number of holes.

- total current is,

I = I_{c} + I_{h}; where I_{c} is electron current under an applied electric force and I_{h }is hole current

- n-Type Semiconductors; n
_{e}>> n_{h}

- p-Type Semiconductors; n
_{h}>> n_{e}

- The electron and hole concentration in a semiconductor in thermal equilibrium is given by,
**n**_{e}. n_{h}= n_{i}^{2}

The Class 12 Physics formulas aren’t only applicable from the exam’s perspective but it is used in many fields in the real world like scientific research and technology. It will be helpful for every student who especially wants to pursue a career in science research and technology fields. Below are some of the many real-life applications of the Class 12 Physics formulas.

- Fluid mechanics is highly used in the aeronautics department for designing and structuring aircraft. It is also highly useful in trying to understand how many fluids and air behave in motion.
- The medical and clinical instruments along with communication tools use the phenomena of laser stimulation emission.
- Our day-to-day household appliances use the basics of Ohm’s law for designing purposes.
- For the optimization of heat engines and their design, the Carnot efficiency formula in physics is used.

In Physics class 12 all formulas have lots of real-life applications like in nuclear plants, transistors and semiconductors in daily appliances and many more help us in our day-to-day life.

Since CBSE has already notified students regarding the announcement of board exams on January 15, 2024, the preparation must have been started. Although many students still might be wondering how to start preparing for the CBSE 2024 physics board exams, a few tips and tricks might help in getting a kickstart.

- Understand the Class 12 CBSE Physics Syllabus. You may find it at the official site or can download it from here.
- Refer to Class 12 NCERT books and reference books like Concepts of Physics by H.C Verma along with Youtube one-shots to understand the concept. Make sure to make revision notes simultaneously.
- Practice NCERT in-text and exercise questions and use the above-mentioned formulas to solve them quickly.
- Practice the latest pattern questions since CBSE has introduced 50% of questions in the board exams, you can also use additional practice papers introduced by CBSE.
- Attempt Sample Paper Questions from Educart Class 12 Physics Sample Paper book as it covers CBSE-pattern, competency-based questions, PYQs, and follows the latest syllabus.
- Make sure you practice regularly and clear your doubts timely.

You can use memorization techniques like mind maps, Feynman Technique, Colourful memory notes, and many more to study smartly. The formulas PDFs for Class 12 Physics comprise all the major formulas in the Class 12 CBSE syllabus. Prepare well and practice regularly.