On July 5, 2021, CBSE had announced that the Syllabus for Class 12 Board Exams will be reduced as per a Term-based Examination System and on July 22, 2021, they finalised the reduced syllabus as well by providing updated PDFs.
CBSE Class 12 Syllabus has undergone drastic changes since the previous 2020-21 session. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the education system has been challenging for both teachers and students.
So, similar to the 30% reduction in the last session, CBSE decided to reduce the overall syllabus according to the Term-based Board Examination for the 2021-22 session again.
We, at Educart, were prompt about it and have updated the changes in all the subjects for you. Here, you can find:
With all this information in hand, both teachers and students will have a defined structure to begin the learning process on time and efficiently.
Class 12 Biology Reduced Syllabus for 2021-22 (Reduced)
We have also provided the syllabus for the 2021-22 session that was previously restored so that you can compare the deleted and added topics.
Class 12 Biology Reduced Syllabus for 2021-22 (Restored Previously)
Now, let us take a look at the syllabus for Term I and Term II Board Exams in detail and try to understand what changes have been made.
<red> Marked in red: <red> Topics <red> removed <red>for 2021-22
Unit VI Reproduction
<red> Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms <red>
<red> Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction - asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction - binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants; events in sexual reproduction. <red>
Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination - types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
Chapter 3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).
Chapter 4: Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control - need and methods; medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT, AI (elementary idea for general awareness)
Unit VII Genetics and Evolution
Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Heredity and variation, Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; linkage and crossing over; Sex determination - in human being, birds, grasshopper and honey bee; Mutation, Pedigree analysis, sex linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans - <red> sickle cell anaemia, Phenylketonuria, <red> thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.
Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation - lac operon; Human genome project; DNA fingerprinting.
<red> Chapter 7: Evolution <red>
<red> Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); adaptive radiation; Biological evolution: Lamarck’s theory of use and disuse of organs, Darwin's theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution - variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; brief account of evolution; human evolution. <red>
Unit VIII Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse.
<red> Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production <red>
<red> Animal husbandry, Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein. <red>
Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare
Microbes in food processing, industrial production, Antibiotics; production and judicious use, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and bio-fertilizers.
Unit IX Biotechnology and its Applications
Chapter 11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Application
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; RNA interference, Human insulin, gene therapy; molecular diagnosis; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.
Unit X Ecology and Environment
Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, abiotic factors, ecological adaptations; population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism, commensalism; population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
<red> Chapter 14: Ecosystem <red>
<red> Ecosystem: structure and function; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services - carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief). <red>
Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation
Biodiversity - Concept, levels, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
<red> Chapter 16: Environmental Issues <red>
<red> Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; case study exemplifying success stories addressing environmental issue(s). <red>
List of Practicals
Our other latest CLASS 12 EDUCART QUESTION BANKS FOR 2022 EXAMS are the ONLY BOOK available in the market for extensive Term-based exam preparation.
Each book includes all possible types of MCQs (Competency-based, Case/ Extract/ Poem-based, A/R type), Chapter-wise Notes, Self Practice Questions, and Topper's Answers. You will have an abundance of questions to practice.
Any other information regarding CBSE curriculum, paper pattern, study material, and notifications is available below in the supporting links.