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A solid foundation in physics in class 12 allows students to seek careers that involve research and innovation. It provides the foundation for understanding more complicated physics theories as well as contributing to scientific advancements.

The **CBSE Class XII Physics Syllabus 2025** is very important for obtaining good grades, getting ready for examinations, and developing knowledge and skills that may be used in a variety of professions and real-world situations.

Class 12 Physics and Class 12 Mathematics can be studied together as both subjects are somehow related to each other. Students can check the chapters in the Class 12 Physics syllabus & also check the topic-wise division in the Math Syllabus Class 12.

Electrical Resistance, Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors, metre bridge, Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell

Cyclotron

magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron

Eddy currents

LC oscillations

Scattering of the light-blue colour of the sky and the reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset

resolving power of microscope and astronomical telescope, Polarisation, plane polarised light, Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids

Davisson-Germer experiment

Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.

Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, Zener diode as a voltage regulator

**Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields**

Electric charges, Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law force between two- point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle, and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet, and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

**Chapter 2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance**

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole, and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, the electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges, and electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges, and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors, and capacitance, a combination of capacitors in series and parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor (no derivation, formulae only).

**Chapter 3: Current Electricity**

Electric current, the flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm's law, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, temperature dependence of resistance, Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and parallel, Kirchhoff's rules, Wheatstone bridge.

**Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism**

Concept of the magnetic field, Oersted's experiment. Biot - Savart law and its application to the current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight solenoid (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, the force between two parallel current-carrying conductors, definition of an ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field; Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, moving coil galvanometer- its current sensitivity and conversion to an ammeter and voltmeter.

**Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter**

Bar magnet, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid (qualitative treatment only), magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis (qualitative treatment only), torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field (qualitative treatment only), magnetic field lines. Magnetic properties of materials- Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances with examples, Magnetization of materials, the effect of temperature on magnetic properties.

**Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction**

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz's Law, Self and Mutual Induction.

**Chapter 7: Alternating Current**

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit (phasors only), resonance, power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current. AC generator, Transformer.

**Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves**

The basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, and their transverse nature (qualitative idea only). Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

**Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments**

**Ray Optics:** Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism.

**Optical instruments:** Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

**Chapter 10: Wave Optics**

Wave optics: Wave front and Huygens principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width (No derivation final expression only), coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maxima (qualitative treatment only).

**Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter**

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Experimental study of the photoelectric effect Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation.

**Chapter 12: Atoms**

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, Expression for the radius of nth possible orbit, velocity and energy of electron in nth orbit, hydrogen line spectra (qualitative treatment only).

**Chapter 13: Nuclei**

Composition and size of nucleus, nuclear force Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

**Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and**

Simple Circuits Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors, and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors- p and n-type, p-n junction. Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, application of junction diode -diode as a rectifier.

The record to be submitted by the students at the time of their annual examination has to include:

- Record at least 8 Experiments [with 4 from each section], to be performed by the students.
- Record at least 6 Activities [with 3 each from sections A and B], to be performed by the students.
- The Report of the project carried out by the students.

**SECTION A**

**Experiments**

- To determine the resistivity of two / three wires by plotting a graph for potential difference versus current.
- To find the resistance of a given wire / standard resistor using a meter bridge.
- To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a meter bridge.

OR

To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a meter bridge. - To determine the resistance of a galvanometer by the half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.
- To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into a voltmeter of the desired range and to verify the same.

OR

To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an ammeter of the desired range and to verify the same. - To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.

**Activities**

- To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without an iron core.
- To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), and current (AC), and check the continuity of a given circuit using a multimeter.
- To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.
- To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.
- To study the variation in potential drop with the length of a wire for a steady current.
- To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter, and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.

**SECTION B**

**Experiments**

- To find the value of v for different values of u in the case of a concave mirror and to find the focal length.
- To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
- To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.
- To find the focal length of a concave lens, use a convex lens.
- To determine the angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between the angle of incidence and the angle of deviation.
- To determine the refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
- To find the refractive index of a liquid using a convex lens and plane mirror.
- To find the refractive index of a liquid using a concave mirror and a plane mirror.
- To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction diode in forward and reverse bias.

**Activities**

- To identify a diode, an LED, a resistor, and a capacitor from a mixed collection of such items.
- Use a multimeter to see the unidirectional flow of current in the case of a diode and an LED and check whether a given electronic component (e.g., diode) is in working order.
- To study the effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an LDR.
- To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.
- To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.
- To study the nature and size of the image formed by a (i) convex lens, or (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).
- To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.

**Suggested Investigatory Projects**

- To study various factors on which the internal resistance/EMF of a cell depends.
- To study the variations in current flowing in a circuit containing an LDR because of a variation in

- the power of the incandescent lamp, used to 'illuminate' the LDR (keeping all the lamps at a fixed distance).
- the distance of an incandescent lamp (of fixed power) used to 'illuminate' the LDR.

- To find the refractive indices of (a) water and (b) oil (transparent) using a plane mirror, an equiconvex lens (made from a glass of known refractive index), and an adjustable object needle.
- To investigate the relation between the ratio of (i) output and input voltage and (ii) the number of turns in the secondary coil and primary coil of a self-designed transformer.
- To investigate the dependence of the angle of deviation on the angle of incidence using a hollow prism filled one by one, with different transparent fluids.
- To estimate the charge induced on each one of the two identical Styrofoam (or pith) balls suspended in a vertical plane by making use of Coulomb's law.
- To study the factor on which the self-inductance of a coil depends by observing the effect of this coil when put in series with a resistor/(bulb) in a circuit fed up by an A.C. source of adjustable frequency.
- To study the earth's magnetic field using a compass needle-bar magnet by plotting magnetic field lines and tangent galvanometer.

Students get started on their board examination preparation as soon as the new semester starts. This head start can greatly improve their intellectual grasp of the material. Getting good grades can be difficult, particularly if students don't pay attention to their studies and don't learn much about the subject matter. The grade point average from the 12th grade is essential in determining a student's future opportunities. Setting up a daily routine for regular practice and study is essential for every learner.

**Solve Numerical**

To support improved revision, students should carefully note down and commit to memory all of the formulas related to each chapter. Before looking at the solutions, you must grasp the fundamental concepts of each theory and become proficient in its application through derivations. It is helpful to go over the solutions with the pupils after they fully understand the question.

**Practice Your Questions More**

The majority of examinations, including questions worth two, three, and five marks, stay the same regardless of how the questions are arranged in each exam. Therefore, to determine the level of complexity of the questions, it is essential to review sample papers and papers from prior years. It is important to understand that taking notes alone won't get you past this examination; instead, regular practice and active study of the subject matter are necessary for success.

CBSE syllabus class 12 Physics 2025 provides students with a comprehensive and well-structured approach to the topic. This syllabus covers a wide range of topics and ideas, giving equal weight to understanding theory and applying it to real-world situations. Following the given syllabus allows students to get a thorough comprehension of physics while refining essential laboratory skills. Having access to the NCERT curriculum is a great way to prepare for exams as it offers insightful information about question types and patterns of examination. Students can succeed in their academic endeavors by achieving success in the CBSE Class 12 Physics Board Exam via hard work and a systematic study regimen.

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