Chapter 2

NCERT
Class 10
Political Science
Solutions
1. Some Nepalese citizens were discussing the proposals on the adoption of federalism in their new Constitution. This is what some of them said:

Question:

Some Nepalese citizens were discussing the proposals on the adoption of federalism in their new Constitution. This is what some of them said:

Khag Raj:I don’t like federalism. It would lead to reservation of seats for different caste groups as in India. Sarita : Ours is not a very big country. We don’t need federalism.

Babu Lal: I am hopeful that Teria areas will get more autonomy if they get their own state government.

Ram Ganesh: I like federalism because it will mean that powers that were earlier enjoyed by the king will now be exercised by our elected representatives.

(A) If you were participating in this conversation what would be your response to each of these?

(B) Which of these reflect a wrong understanding of what federalism is?

(C) What makes India a federal country?

Answer:

(A) (i)Response to Khag Raj : I disagree with your opinion that different caste groups are being given their rights, which they have been kept deprived of for years. Federalism works when there is mutual trust among different sections of the society. This is the spirit of democracy.

(ii) Response to Sarita : No Sarita, Country is big or small does not matter in making a country federal. Nepal is also a diverse country consisting of a group of people having different interests. For example, Belgium is a small country with diverse social groups. This could only be resolved by making a federation. So, we also need a federal system that empowers its people equally.

(iii) Response to Babu Lal : Yes, I agree with Babu Lal. Along with the Terai area, there are other areas as well which need more autonomy. So, the only way is to form a federal system so that each region gets its own share and can live together with mutual trust and contribute to the development of the nation equally.

(iv) Response to Ram Ganesh : Yes, I agree. Power should not get concentrated in one hand, it harms the will of the common people. In a democracy, people govern themselves through self- governance. The decentralization of power will ensure due respect to diverse groups and views that exist in the society, and everyone will have a voice in the shaping of public policy.

(B) Of these, Khag Raj and Sarita have a wrong understanding of what federalism is.

(C) In India there are three levels of government : The central, state and local governments. These have their own jurisdictions. There is a Constitution which declares their powers and duties. There is an apex court under an independent judiciary, which can resolve disputes among them. All the state governments have their own sources of income. Income is also shared with the central government. All these features make India a federal country.

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