Chapter 1

NCERT
Class 10
Economics
Solutions
7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Haryana. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.

Question:

Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Haryana. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.

Answer:

If personal aspirations and goals are seen then people do not only think about better income but they also think about their security, getting respect and equal treatment from others, freedom etc. Similarly, when we think about the development of a country, we look at other characteristics other than average income.

Table (A): Per Capita Income of Selected States

State Per Capita Income (2020 - 21)(In ₹)
Haryana 2,39,535
Kerala 2,05,484
Bihar 46,292

Table (B): Some Comparative Data for haryana, Kerala and Bihar

State Child Mortality
Rate per 1000
persons (2019)
Literacy Rate (%)
(Census 2011)
Net Attendance
Ratio (Per 100 persons)
Higher (Age 14 and 1
5 Years) (2019-20)
Haryana 27 76 94
Kerala 6 94 97
Bihar 29 62 59

As per the data given in table (A), the per capita income of Haryana is higher than that of Kerala and Bihar. Thus, if income is considered as the measure of development, then Haryana will be considered the most and Bihar the least developed among all the three states. But if we look at the other figures given in Table (B), we find that the infant mortality rate in Kerala is much lower than that of Haryana, while Haryana has a higher per capita income. Similarly, Kerala has the highest literacy rate and Bihar has the lowest. Thus, per capita income alone cannot be considered as the measure of development. Looking at other parameters, such as literacy, health etc. the condition of Kerala is better than that of Punjab.

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