Chapter 1

NCERT
Class 9
Political Science
Solutions
1. This cartoon is from Brazil, a country that has a long experience of dictatorship. It is entitled "The Hidden Side of Dictatorship". Which hidden sides does this cartoon depict?

Question:

This cartoon is from Brazil, a country that has a long experience of dictatorship. It is entitled "The Hidden Side of Dictatorship". Which hidden sides does this cartoon depict? Is it necessary for every dictatorship to have a hidden side? If possible, find this out about the dictators including Pinochet in Chile, Jaruzelski in Poland, Sani Abacha in Nigeria and Ferdinand Marcos in the Philippines.

Answer:

In the cartoon, the hidden side is the brutal side of the dictator. A dictator like Hitler was a brutal one. He ordered mass killings of those whom he considered 'undesirable' in Nazi society. Apart from Hitler, there were other dictators also who killed innocent people because they were against their rule. No, every dictator doesn't need to have a hidden side. The other dictators' activities are given below:

I. Under General Augusto Pinochet, the revolt by the army took place in Chile on 11th September 1973 in which President Allende was killed. After that Pinochet became the President of Chile and ruled for 17 years.

II. Jaruzelski was the Communist leader of Poland. He was the head of the state from 1985 to 1990. After the Polish Round Table Agreement in 1989, he resigned from his power which led to democratic elections in Poland.

III. General Sani Abacha was the dictator and politician of the Nigerian military. He was the President of Nigeria from 1993 to 1998. He has allegations of corruption and human rights violations. He hanged the famous social activist Ken Saro- Wiwa. He was against the elections. He was listed as the world's fourth most corrupt leader in recent history.

IV. From 1965 to 1986, Ferdinand Marcos was the President of the Philippines. He executed wide-ranging programmes for infrastructure development and economic reform in the country. However, his regime was marked by human rights violations and political repression.

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