Chapter 4

NCERT
Class 10
History
Solutions
1. Look at following figures then reread source B. Explain why many workers were opposed to the use of the Spinning Jenny. You can see each member of the family involved in the production of yarn.

Question:

Look at following figures then reread source B. Explain why many workers were opposed to the use of the Spinning Jenny.

Spinning in the eighteenth century.

You can see each member of the family involved in the production of yarn.Notice that one wheel is moving only one spindle.

A spinning factory in 1830.

You can see how giant wheels moved by steam power could set in motion hundreds of spindles to manufacture thread.

A Spinning Jenny, a drawing by T.E. Nicholson, 1835.

Notice the number of spindles that could be operated with one wheel.

Source B

A magistrate reported in 1790 about an incident when he was called in to protect a manufacturer's property from being attacked by workers: 'From the depredations of a lawless Banditti of colliers and their wives, for the wives had lost their work to spinning engines ... they advanced at first with much insolence, avowing their intention of cutting to pieces the machine lately introduced in the woollen manufacture; which they suppose, if generally adopted, will lessen the demand for manual labour. The women became clamorous. The men were more open to conviction and after some expostulation were induced to desist from their purpose and return peaceably home.' J.L. Hammond and B. Hammond, The Skilled Labourer 1760-1832, quoted in Maxine Berg, The Age of Manufactures.

Answer:

  • Spinning Jenny was the machine that made it possible to yarn many spindles from one wheel.
  • Whereas earlier one wheel could yarn only one spindle. At that time all members of a family were employed, and earned.
  • But due to Spinning Jenny Productivity increased, as many spindles could be yearned at one time from one wheel.
  • This led to an increase in unemployment.
  • Therefore many workers were opposed to the use of spinning Jenny.
Fig. 6 : A shallow underground railway being constructed incentral London, Illustrated Times, 1868.

From the 1850s railway stations began coming up all over London. This meant a demand for large numbers of workers to dig tunnels, erect timber scaffolding, do the brick and iron works. Job-seekers moved from one construction site to another.

Buy Latest Books

Teacher's Corner