Chapter 2

NCERT
Class 10
History
Solutions
1. Explain : (a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement. (b)How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India. (c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.

Question:

Write in Brief

Explain :

(a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.

(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.

(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.

(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Answer:

(a)

  • The rise of modern nationalism in India is closely related to the anticolonial movement, as it is in Vietnam and many other colonies. In the course of fighting colonialism, people started to realise their togetherness. Many diverse groups were united by their experience of colonialismrelated oppression, which served as a common bond.
  • European powers believed their civilization to be more advanced, civilised, and superior. They began forcing their culture on the colonists forcibly. This sparked a sense of nationalism as well.
  • Gandhiji waged a "Satyagraha" campaign against the British. Additionally, this encouraged a sense of nationalism among the masses.
  • People came together to fight outsiders in the anti-colonial movement. The spirit of nationalism was sparked by the united struggle.

(b) The War created a new economic and political situation:

  • It resulted in a significant rise in defence spending, which was paid for by war loans and rising taxes, higher customs fees, and the implementation of an income tax.
  • Prices rose throughout the war years, more than doubling between 1913 and 1918, making life extremely difficult for the common people.
  • Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers, and forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
  • On the basis of a report from the Sedition Committee, which was led by Justice Rowlatt, the Rowlatt Act was approved by the Imperial Legislative Council.
  • The Black Act allowed for the two-year incarceration of political prisoners without charge or trial and granted the government and police authority to control political activity.
  • Despite the unanimous opposition of the Indian Council members, the Act was enacted.
  • This Act ended up being one of the reasons Gandhiji started the Non-Cooperation Movement.

(d) In February 1922, Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement due to the following reasons:

  • The movement was turning violent. At Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur, a peaceful demonstration in a Bazar turned into a violent clash in which more than 20 policemen were killed.
  • Before the Safyagrahis would be prepared for a large-scale uprising, Gandhiji believed that they needed to get sufficient training.
  • Some leaders in the Congress party wanted to run in the provincial council elections held in accordance with the Government of India Act of 1919 because they were sick of leading large-scale protests.
  • The word "Swaraj" was perceived differently by businesspeople, labourers, peasants, and other groups. Leaders like Alluri Sitaram Raju asserted that India could only be freed through the use of force in various locations, including Andhra Pradesh. However, the Congress did not endorse their values.

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