Chapter 2

NCERT
Class 10
History
Solutions
1. Find out about the anti-colonial movement in Indo-China. Compare and contrast India’s national movement with the ways in which Indo-China became independent.

Question:

Project

Find out about the anti-colonial movement in Indo-China. Compare and contrast India’s national movement with the ways in which Indo-China became independent.

Answer:

The Indo-China region of modern-day Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos struggled with colonization from the Europeans just like India. They too fought back to gain their independence and this was where their nationalist movement started. In reality, Vietnam attained formal independence before India. Let's examine how the nationalist movement has grown in Indo-China.

Did you know that the French, like the British, were colonisers? The Indo-China region was under the strict control of the French. They occupied Vietnam between 1858 and 1880. Vietnam was able to eventually obtain independence and escape Chinese influence as a result. Let's study their history.

  • Vietnam Emerging from the Shadows of China

Various terms that combine the names of countries and regions are used frequently. Some examples are ‘South- East Asia’, ‘South Asia’, ‘Tibeto-Burman’, etc. Similarly, ‘Indo- China’ was a collective term for Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia together. Vietnam was merely a region of China's surroundings that adhered to the same customs and political structures. The wealthy silk trade route, which exchanged people, goods, and ideas, included it as well. After they were made a colony of the French, this began to change.

  • European Conquests

In the Middle Ages, Europeans set out on a mission to colonise nations in Asia. They cited the famed "white man's burden" notion as their justification for this. It claimed that because Europeans were the most civilised people in the world, it was their "responsibility" to civilise everyone else. But in truth, Europeans sought a source of inexpensive raw materials and a marketplace where they could sell their goods. The distinction between "developed" and "underdeveloped" nations was established by this system, which was incredibly exploitative.

  • Vietnam as a Colony

From 1858 through 1880, the French created a colony in Vietnam, just as the British had done in India in 1757. Tonkin and Anaam came under French rule following the Franco-Chinese war. After that, they established a tight grip over the nation, stirring up discontent among the masses and fueling the emergence of nationalism.

The French initially sought to support agriculture. They built numerous canal networks and cleared swampy areas for farming. In 1930, there were 2.2 million hectares of rice fields, up from 274,000 in 1920. Vietnam was the third-largest rice producer in the world by 1931. Two-thirds of this was exported, and the French kept all the earnings.

To support the development of Vietnam's mass industry, even infrastructure was developed. Railway systems were built to facilitate the movement of goods and people. Vietnam's north and south were connected by railroad to Siam and Yunan in China (Thailand).

As bonded labour, Vietnamese people constructed these facilities. They were severely abused for financial gain and subjected to numerous human rights violations.

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