Chapter-wise Class 12 Chemistry Formula Cheat Sheet for Organic Chemistry

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Students who have opted for science in Classes 11 and 12 can understand the stress of understanding the reactions, equations, and formulas in organic chemistry. This part of chemistry is really significant for entrance exams like NEET and JEE. Career options in the fields of biochemistry, medicine, pharmacy, and many others can be pursued after having a strong grasp of organic chemistry both theoretically and practically.

The Class 12 Organic Chemistry in 2023-24 CBSE Chemistry examinations comprise almost 33 marks. As the board exams are nearing, students can be seen to find the easiest way to complete the entire syllabus and score high marks. The formulas and reaction sheets given by Educart are created after extensive research and can help students handle the complexity of the subject. Integrate this formula sheet into the exam strategy and boost your preparation.

Table Of Contents

S.No. Table Of Content
1 Unit VI: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
2 Unit VII: Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers
3 Unit VIII: Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acid
4 Unit IX: Amines
5 Unit X: Biomolecules

List of Chapter-wise Organic Chemistry Formulas and Reactions

The branch that focuses on carbon-containing compounds is organic chemistry. Carbon with the help of different bond patterns can form distinct various and complex molecules. To get a better understanding of organic compound’s structure, behavior, properties, reactions, and synthesis, organic chemistry is important.

These are the chapters included in the organic chemistry CBSE curriculum for Class 12. 

Unit VI: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Nomenclature of Haloalkanes

Nomenclature of Haloarenes

Preparation of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

  1. From Alcohols
  • By the action of Halogen Acids
R–X + H–X —> R–X + H2O
  • Preparation of Bromoalkanes
  • Preparation of Iodoalkanes
  • By Action of Phosphorus Halides
  • By Reaction with Thionyl Chloride
  • By Free Radical Halogenation of alkanes
  1. From Alkenes
  • By Addition of Hydrogen Halide

In the case of unsymmetrical alkenes; Markovnikov’s Rule:

  • Finkelstein Reaction
  • Swartz Reaction
  • Electrophilic Substitution of Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Preparations of Haloarenes from Diazonium Salts

  • Sandmeyer’s Reaction
  • Gatterman Reaction
  • Balz Schiemann Reaction
  • Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction
  • Elimination Reaction
  • Saytzeff Elimination Rule
  • Wurtz Reaction
  • Wurtz-Fittig Reaction
  • Fittig Reaction
  1. Preparation of PolyHalogen Compounds
  • Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2)
  • Trichloromethane, Chloroform (CHCl3)
  • Tetrachloromethane (CHCl4)
  • Freons
  • Benzene Hexachloride (BHC)
  • Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane

Unit VII: Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers

Classification of Alcohols

  1. Based on the Number of Hydroxyl Groups

- > Monohydric alcohols: They contain one –OH group. Example, CH3CH2–OH

  • Compounds Containing sp3 Hybridised carbon —OH bond

Primary alcohols: One or no carbon atom is directly attached.

Secondary alcohols: Two carbon atoms are directly attached.

Tertiary alcohols: Three carbon atoms are directly attached.

  • Compounds Containing sp2 Hybridised carbon —OH bond

Vinylic alcohol: CH2 = CH–OH

-> Dihydric alcohols: They contain two –OH groups. Example, 1, 2-Ethanediol.

-> Trihydric alcohols: They contain three –OH groups. Example 1, 2, 3-Propanetriol.

Nomenclature of Alcohols

Nomenclature of Phenols

Phenol is hydroxybenzene. Phenol is a common name for the compound. Its IUPAC name would be benzenol. Substituents are always numbered with the –OH group being given the first position in the alcohol chemistry formula.

Preparation of Alcohols

  1. From Alkenes
  • By Acid Catalyzed Hydration
  • By Hydroboration-Oxidation
  • From Grignard Reagents
  1. By Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds (Aldehydes and Ketones)
  1. By Reduction of Carboxylic Acids to Alcohols
  1. By Reduction of Esters

Preparation of Phenols

  1. From Benzene Sulphonic Acid
  1. From Haloarenes
  1. From Diazonium Salt
  1. From Cumene

Chemical Properties of Alcohols

  1. Alcohols as Nucleophiles
  1. Reactions of Alcohols Involving Cleavage of –OH bond 

Acidity of Alcohols

  • Reaction with metals:
  • Reaction with carboxylic acid (Esterification):
  • Reaction with Grignard reagent:

  1. Reactions Involving Cleavage of C–O Bond

Reactivity Order: 1° R–OH < 2° R–OH < 3° R–OH

Formation of Halides

Oxidation/ Dehydrogenation of Alcohol

Dehydration of Alcohols

The ease of dehydration of three alcohols increases in the order: 1° ROH < 2° ROH < 3° ROH the stability of carbocations follows the order: 3° > 2° > 1°

Reaction with Hydrogen Halides/ Test for distinguishing 1°, 2°, and 3° Alcohols

Chemical Properties of Phenols

Acidity of Phenols

  1. Reaction with Sodium H2 gas is produced.
  1. Reaction with Sodium Hydroxide forms Sodium salt and water.
  1. Phenols with an electron-donating substituent are less acidic because these substituents concentrate the charge.

Electrophilic Substitution Reactions

  1. Acetylation
  1. Nitration
  • With dilute HNO3:
  • With conc. HNO3:
  1. Halogenation
  • Bromination in solvents of low polarity like CS2:
  • The reaction of phenol with bromine water:
  1. Kolbe’s Reaction
  1. Reimer-Tiemann Reaction
  1. Fries Rearrangement
  1. Reaction with Zinc dust
  1. Reaction with Ammonia
  1. CH3OH(methanol chemical formula) Preparation
  1. Ethanol, C2H5OH

Preparation of Ethers

  1. By Dehydration of 1° Alcohols (SN 2 Reaction)
  1. By Williamson's Synthesis (SN2 Reaction)

Chemical Properties of Ethers

  1. Reaction with Hydrogen Halides (HX) with symmetrical ethers:
  1. Reaction with Hydrogen Halides (HX) with asymmetrical ethers:
  1. Reaction with Hydrogen Halides (HX) with aromatic ethers:
  1. Electrophilic Substitution Halogenation
  1. Electrophilic Substitution Nitration
  1. Electrophilic Substitution Friedel-Crafts reaction

Chemical Properties of Ethers

  1. Reaction with Hydrogen Halides (HX)
  • With symmetrical ethers:
  • With asymmetrical ethers:
  • With aromatic ethers:
  1. Electrophilic Substitution

  1. Halogenation
  1. Nitration
  1. Friedel-Crafts Reaction

Unit VIII: Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acid

Nomenclature of Aldehydes

IUPAC system names are given on top while the common name is given on the bottom in parentheses.

Nomenclature of Ketones

IUPAC system names are given on top while the common name is given on the bottom in parentheses.

Compounds with both Aldehyde & Ketone Groups

It is not necessary to give the aldehyde functional group a location number, however, it is usually necessary to give a location number to the ketone.

Structure of Carbonyl Group

Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones

  1. By oxidation of alcohols
  1. By Dehydrogenation of Alcohol
  1. By Ozonolysis of Alkenes
  1. By Hydration of Alkynes
  1. By Heating Calcium Salt of Acid

To obtain aldehyde, calcium formate and any other Ca salt of acid are heated.

  1. By Decarboxylation and Dehydration of Aromatic acids

Methods of Preparation of Aldehydes Only

  1. By Rosenmund Reduction
  1. From Nitriles (RCN)

This reaction is called the Stephen reaction.

  1. By Oxidation of Methylbenzene/Etard reaction
  1. By Oxidation of Methylbenzene
  1. By Side Chain Chlorination of Methybenzene followed by Hydrolysis
  1. By Gatterman - Koch Reaction

Methods of Preparation of Ketones only

  1. From Acyl Chlorides
  1. From Nitriles
  1. Friedel-Crafts Acylation
  1. Oppenauer Oxidation

Chemical Properties

  1. Nucleophilic Addition Reactions

Difference in Relative Strength of Aldehydes and Ketones towards Nucleophilic Attack

  • Based on the Inductive Effect
  • Based on the Steric Effect
  1. Addition of HCN (Formation of Cyanohydrins)
  1. Addition of Sodium Bisulphite (in separation of Aldehyde and Ketone)
  1. Addition of Grignard Reagent
  1. Addition of Alcohols
  1. Addition of Ammonia and Its Derivatives

Reduction Reaction

  1. Reduction to Alcohols
  1. Clemmensen Reduction
  1. Wolff-Kishner Reduction


  1. Aldehydes can be easily oxidized to carboxylic acids by HNO3, KMnO4, K2Cr2O7, etc., or even by the mild oxidizing agent.
  1. Ketones are generally oxidized under vigorous conditions, i.e., strong oxidizing agents and at elevated temperatures.
  1. Oxidation Reactions used to distinguish between Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Tollen's test

Tollen’s Reagent is Ammonical AgNO3.

  • Fehling's test

Fehling solution is a mixture of Fehling solution A and Fehling solution B in a 1:1 ratio. Fehling solution A is aqueous copper sulphate and Fehling solution B is alkaline sodium potassium tartrate which is also called Rochelle salt.

  1. Oxidation of Methyl Ketones by Haloform Reaction

Reactions Due to α-Hydrogen

  1. Acidity of α-Hydrogen
  1. Aldol Condensation
  1. Cross Aldol Condensation

Reaction in the absence of alpha Hydrogen

  1. Cannizzaro Reaction
  1. Electrophilic Substitution

Structure of Carboxyl group

Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids

Preparation of Carboxylic Acids

  1. From alcohol to carboxylic acid by oxidation
  1. By Oxidation of Aldehyde and Ketones
  1. From Alkyl Benzene
  1. Hydrolysis of Nitriles
  1. From Grignard Reagent
  1. By Hydrolysis of Acyl Halide
  1. By Hydrolysis of Acyl Halide
  1. From Acid Derivatives

Ease of Hydrolysis: RCOCl > (RCO)2O > RCOOR' > RCONH2

Chemical Properties of Carboxylic Acids

Reactions Involving Cleavage of O–H Bond

  1. Acidity

The strength of an acid is expressed in terms of the dissociation constant (Ka), called the acidity constant. A stronger acid has a higher Ka or lesser pKa value

  1. Effect of Substituent on Acidity of Carboxylic Acids

FCH2COOH>CICH2COOH>BrCH2COOH>ICH2COOH. As depicted above -I effect decreases in the order: F > CI > Br > I.

  1. Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
  • Formation of Acid Chlorides RCOCl
  • Formation of Esters (Esterification) RCOOR
  • Formation of Amides RCONH2
  • Formation of Anhydrides (RCO)2 O
  1. Reactions Involving –COOH Group as a whole
  • Reduction
  1. Substitution Reactions Involving Hydrocarbon Part
  • Halogenation
  • Ring substitution

Unit IX: Amines

Structure of Amines

Classification of Amines Based on –R group present

  1. Aliphatic Amines
  1. Aromatic Amines

Nomenclature Of Alkylamines and Arylamines

Preparation of Amines

  1. Reduction of Nitro Compounds

  1. Ammonolysis
  1. Reduction of Nitriles
  1. Reduction of Amides
  1. Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis
  1. Hoffmann Bromamide Degradation Reaction

Chemical Properties of Amines

  1. Basicity of Alkylamines
  • Basicity in terms of Kb and pKb values
  • The order of basic strength in case of methyl-substituted amines and ethyl-substituted amines in aqueous solution is as follows:

(C2H5)2NH > (C2H5)3N > C2H5NH2 > NH3 (2°>3°>1°> NH3)

(CH3)2NH > CH3NH2 > (CH3)3N > NH3 (2°>1°>3°> NH3)

  1. Basicity of Aromatic Amines

Basic Strength: NH3 > Ar–NH2 > Ar2–NH

  1. Alkylation
  1. Acylation
  1. Carbylamines reaction or Isocyanide test
  1. Electrophilic Substitution Reactions
  1. Halogenation of Aromatic Amines
  1. Nitration
  1. Sulphonation
  1.  Hinsberg’s Test
  • A primary amine forms N-alkyl benzene suiphonamide
  • A secondary amine forms N, N-dialkylbenzenesulphonamide
  • A tertiary amine does not react with benzene suiphonyl chloride and remains insoluble in aqueous KOH.
  1. Diazotization reaction
  1. Chemical Reactions

Distinction Between 3 Types of Amines

  1. Hinsberg’s Test
  • A primary amine forms N-Alkyl-benzenesulphonamide which dissolves in aqueous KOH solution to form Potassium salt.
  • A secondary amine forms N, N-Alkyl-benzenesulphonamide which remains insoluble in aqueous KOH and even after acidification with dilute HCl.
  • A tertiary amine does not react with benzene sulphonyl chloride and remains insoluble in aqueous KOH.
  1. Reaction with Nitrous Acid
  • A primary amine forms N-Alkyl-benzenesulphonamide which dissolves in aqueous KOH solution to form potassium salt
  • A secondary amine forms N, N-Dialkyl-benzenesulphonamide which remains insoluble in aqueous KOH and even after acidification with dilute HCl
  • A tertiary amine does not react with benzene sulphonyl chloride and remains insoluble in aqueous KOH.

Unit X: Biomolecules

Classification of Carbohydrates

Preparation of Glucose

  1. From Sucrose, C12H22O11:

  1. From Starch, (C6H10O5)n:

Structure of Glucose and Fructose

  1. Chain structure of Glucose

  1. Cyclic Structure of Glucose
  1. Cyclic Structures of Fructose
  1. Haworth Ring Structures of Glucose and Fructose
  1. Fructose Stereoisomeric Forms
  1. Disaccharides

Monosaccharide–OH + HO–Monosaccharide → Monosaccharide–O–Monosaccharide (Disaccharide)

  • Glycosidic Linkage to Prepare Sucrose
  • Sucrose on Hydrolysis
  • Maltose C12H22O11.H2O
  • Lactose
  1. Polysaccharides
  • Starch (C6H10O5)n
  • Cellulose (C6H10O5)n

Chemical Reactions of Glucose

  1. When glucose is heated with HI, n-hexane is formed which indicates that all the six carbon atoms are linked in a straight chain.
  1. When glucose reacts with hydroxylamine, oxime formation occurs and when reacted with HCN, cyanohydrin is formed. These reactions confirm the presence of the carbonyl group in glucose.
  1. In the reaction of glucose with a mild oxidising agent like bromine water, the glucose gets oxidised to a carboxylic acid that contains six carbon atoms. This indicates that the carbonyl group is present as an aldehydic group.
  1. The aldehydic group is also confirmed by the following reactions: Reaction with Fehling’s solution.
  1. The aldehydic group is also confirmed by the following reactions: Reaction with Tollen’s reagent.
  1. The existence of five –OH groups is confirmed by the acetylation of glucose with acetic acid(structural formula) which gives glucose pentaacetate.
  1. Glucose with bromine water (mild oxidising agent) gives gluconic acid and with conc. HNO3 gives saccharic acid. These reactions show the presence of the primary alcoholic group in Glucose.
  1. Fisher Model

Structure of Amino Acids

All naturally occurring amino acids are in the L-series in which the –NH2 group on the left and –OH group on the right as L-glyceraldehydes.

Nomenclature of Amino Acids

Classification of Amino Acids

  1. Essential Amino Acids
  1. Non-essential Amino Acids

Peptide Linkage of Amino Acids and their Classification

Classification of Vitamins

Components of Nucleic Acids

  1. Nucleoside
  1. Nucleotide
  1. Pentose Sugar
  1. Nitrogenous bases Purines and Pyrimidines

Nucleic Acid Chain

Structure of DNA

  1. Primary Structure of DNA

  1. Secondary Structure of DNA

Structure of RNA

Structural difference between DNA and RNA

Importance of Organic Chemistry CBSE Class 12 Formulas

The organic chemistry portion contributes 31 marks in the final examination thus, to ace the Class 12 board exams, organic chemistry formulas and reaction sheets are needed. By using the Organic Chemistry CBSE Class 12 Formulas, students can benefit in the listed ways.

  • Understanding the organic chemistry formula sheet can help students predict the outcome when the involved reactants under/without conditions react to form a product.
  • The formula sheet can help students determine the distinct isomeric forms and their properties. Formulas are important to understand the functional groups in organic chemistry, their nature, and their acidic-basic properties.
  • Formulas are essential to infer the compound structure by its name and to determine the synthesis sequence of the reaction. It will help recognize and name compounds as per the IUPAC standards. 

How to Use this Organic Chemistry Formula Sheet?

Students often find themselves wondering about how this product was formed and what the reactants were in the first place. This chemistry section requires a slightly different approach, unlike the other two. To start preparing for organic chemistry IUPAC, chemical reactions, and other formulas in Class 12, students need to 

  • Understand the basics of general organic chemistry. 
  • Starting with it can help in understanding the reaction mechanism writing. 

In this formula list, students can find the reactions and their mechanisms, reaction mechanisms like substitution and elimination reactions. The chapter-wise reactions and applications given in one place can help in quick revision and exam preparation.

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