Chapter 2

NCERT
Class 9
Political Science
Solutions
1. Does the story of the South African struggle for freedom remind you of the Indian national movement? Make a list of similarities and dissimilarities between the two on the following points: (i) Nature of colonialism

Question:

Does the story of the South African struggle for freedom remind you of the Indian national movement? Make a list of similarities and dissimilarities between the two on the following points:

(i) Nature of colonialism

(ii) Relationship between different communities

(iii) Leadership: Gandhi/ Mandela

(iv) Party that led the struggle: African National Congress/ Indian National Congress

(v) Method of struggle

Answer:

Similarities and dissimilarities between the South African and Indian National Movements are as follows:

(i) Nature of colonialism:

Similarities Dissimilarities
South Africa was forcefully occupied by trading companies from Europe in the way India was occupied. Unlike India, a large number of whites settled in South Africa and became the local rulers.

(ii) Relationship between different communities:

Similarities Dissimilarities
Both in South Africa and India, White rulers treated non-whites as inferiors and uncivilized. Unlike in South Africa, there was a cordial relationship between different religious
and regional communities in India.

(iii) Leadership: Gandhi/ Mandela

Similarities Dissimilarities
Both the leaders advocated non-violence and truth. Mandela was given life imprisonment. Gandhi ji was put behind the bars several times but never given life imprisonment.

(iv) Party that led the struggle: African National Congress/ Indian National Congress

Similarities Dissimilarities
Both, African National Congress and Indian National Congress were the major
parties working at the national level.
Both parties had different purposes. ANC fourth against apartheid and the racial segregation policies of the European government, while INC fought against
the British rule in India.

(v) Method of struggle

Similarities Dissimilarities
Both movements followed
the policy of non-violence.
In South Africa, there was only one group, moderates who took the peaceful way against the racial government. But in India, besides moderates, there were extremists also who adopted the path of violence to attain freedom.

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