Chapter 5

NCERT
Class 10
Science
Solutions
1. Describe the structure and functioning of nephrons.

Question:

Describe the structure and functioning of nephrons.

Answer:

Structure of nephron : Nephron is the constructive and functional unit of excretion, its main parts are

1. Bowman capsule : The tip of the nephron is cup-like.

2. Cell bundle : A clump of blood cells formed by the repeated division of the renal artery and renal vein.

3. Renal vein : Blood vessel carrying impure blood to the kidney.

4. Renal artery : Blood vessel carrying pure blood from Bowman's capsule.

5. Tubular part of nephron : The end of the nephron in front of the Hanel's loop coils up to form this part. It has a network of blood cells on its surface.

6. Collecting duct : The end of the nephron meets a tube that leads to the bladder.

Mechanism of action of the nephron :

  • Due to the high blood pressure in the cell clusters of Bowman Capsule, excretory substances are filtered out of the blood. These substances go along with the water into the collecting canal and reach the bladder.
  • Due to the high blood pressure of the cell cluster, some important substances such as glucose, amino acids, etc. are also filtered out, which are reabsorbed in the hanel's loop and tubule car part. This is called reabsorption.

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